The field of EEG biofeedback has advanced dramatically in recent years. Also, advances in neuroscience provide a richer understanding of the mechanisms of EEG operant conditioning, allowing for improved treatment across the different types of neurofeedback, especially in Z score training.
These increases in knowledge have allowed for the improvement of neurofeedback treatment, and other advances in the field. There are different types of neurofeedback, surface EEG trains only the amplitude of the waves, while Z score training trains the amplitude (power), the coherence (connectivity) and the phase lag (timing).
The most recent discovery is LORETA, Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomographic Analysis that was developed by Roberto Pascal Marti, Key Institute, in Zurich. LORETA Zscore Neurofeedback was developed at the University of Tennessee and papers have been published on the clinical efficacy. The goal of LORETA is to train the activity inside the brain, not just the surface EEG on the cranium of the brain.
Emotion, memories and behavior depend on the coordinated activities of regions in the brain connected by the limbic system. LORETA Z score training allows us to train the different systems (networks and hubs) in all three dimensions, amplitude, coherence, and timing. LORETA connects the data from your QEEG to the Brodmann areas in the brain that research associates with the symptoms you are experiencing, allowing only the areas that match to be trained. Relying solely on brain maps can be misleading, as the brain develops compensatory systems as a way to work around the problem, resulting in a misrepresentation of what is causing the problems. With the LORETA Z score training you are utilizing over two hundred years of research linking symptoms to the Broaman areas in the brain, with the end result of treating the root cause and not a symptom.